PARAMEDICS WORLD | MEDICAL & PARAMEDICAL STUDY NOTES

Systematic Virology

POX VIRUSES – THE ERADICATED CULPRIT OF SMALLPOX (VACCINIA & VARIOLA VIRUSES)

INTRODUCTION TO POX VIRUSES Pox viruses are the largest and the most complex of all viruses, belongs to the family poxviridae and causes a number of diseases, are large enough…

Biochemistry Practicals

PREPARATION OF PHOSPHATE BUFFER SOLUTION IN LABORATORY

PREPARATION OF PHOSPHATE BUFFER SOLUTION (pH 5.8 to 7.4) IN LABORATORY A Buffer solution is a special type of solution which helps to maintain a stable pH level when a…

SPECTROPHOTOMETER – PRINCIPLE, COMPONENTS, WORKING & APPLICATIONS

A spectrophotometer is an instrument used to measure absorbance at various wavelengths. It is similar to calorimeter except that it uses prism or diffraction grating to produce monochromatic light. It can…

COLORIMETER – PRINCIPLE, COMPONENTS, WORKING & APPLICATIONS

⇒ A Colorimeter involves the measurement of Color and is the widely used method for finding the concentration of biochemical compounds. It Measures absorbance and wavelength between 400 to 700 nm (nanometer)…

PREPARATION OF 2/3N SULFURIC ACID (H2SO4)

A solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of only one phase. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance called as the solvent. The concentration…

PREPARATION OF 0.1 N SODIUM CARBONATE (Na2CO3) SOLUTION

A solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of only one phase. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance called as the solvent. The concentration…

PREPARATION OF NORMAL SALINE SOLUTION

Normal Saline Solution (NSS) is commonly used in various laboratory procedures like in the preparation of Red cells Suspension for the crossmatch, for preparing dilutions of Reagents, for stool examinations,…

Hematology Practicals

PREPARATION OF GIEMSA STAIN IN LABORATORY

PREPARATION OF GIEMSA STAIN IN LABORATORY Giemsa stain is a differential stain that is used to stain the various components of the cells (blood or Aspirated Fluid) and it can…

Microbiology Notes

MYCOLOGY NOTES

MYCOLOGY NOTES – A QUALITY STUDY NOTES OF MYCOLOGY Mycology is the branch of microbiology that deals with the study of Fungi and Fungal infections are the most abundant and…

Biochemical Tests Of Bacteria

BIOCHEMICAL TESTS FOR STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (S. aureus)

There are so many biochemical tests for Staphylococcus aureus, the well known causative agent of localized suppurative lesions. However, only a few reactions are most commonly used and are medically important…

BIOCHEMICAL TESTS FOR CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE (C. DIPHTHERIAE)

In this Article, I’m gonna discuss various biochemical reactions for the well known causative agent of Diphtheria & Cutaneous infections i.e. the Corynebacterium diphtheriae abbreviated as C. diphtheriae. However, only a…

BIOCHEMICAL TESTS FOR SALMONELLA TYPHI (S. TYPHI)

In this Article, I’m gonna discuss various biochemical reactions for the well known causative agent of Enteric fever, Septicemia & Gastroenteritis i.e. the Salmonella typhi abbreviated as S. typhi. However, only…

BIOCHEMICAL TESTS FOR KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE (K. PNEUMONIAE)

In this Article, we’re gonna discuss so many biochemical reactions for the well known causative agent of Nosocomial Infections specially Pneumonia, UTI (Urinary Tract Infections), Septicemia, Pyogenic Infections and Sometimes Diarrhea…

BIOCHEMICAL TESTS FOR ESCHERICHIA COLI (E.COLI)

In this Article, we’re gonna discuss so many biochemical reactions for the well known causative agent of UTI (Urinary Tract Infections), Diarrhea & Pyogenic Infections i.e. the Escherichia coli abbreviated as…

BIOCHEMICAL TESTS FOR STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE

There are so many biochemical reactions for the well known causative agent of Pneumonia and Otitis media infection i.e. the Streptococcus pneumoniae but a few reactions are most commonly used and are…

Hematology Notes

Top 25 Difference between Arteries and Veins

The term artery derived from the Greek word, ἀρτηρία (artēria), meaning windpipe. An artery is a blood vessel that carries the blood from the heart to all parts of the…

Difference Between

Top 30 Difference between Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

Bacteria are the Prokaryotic, single-celled organisms. The structure of bacteria is quite simpler than almost all the other organisms as it lacks a nucleus and membrane-bound cell organelles. The control…

Top 30 Difference between Enzymes and Hormones

Enzymes are macromolecules (Large Molecules) made from many difference amino acids. The amino acids link together in a long chain, which is folded up into a complex structure and performs…

Top 25 Difference between Arteries and Veins

The term artery derived from the Greek word, ἀρτηρία (artēria), meaning windpipe. An artery is a blood vessel that carries the blood from the heart to all parts of the…

Top 40 Difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

“Prokaryote” is the term used to denote a group of unicellular organisms which lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound cell organelles. Sometimes it is seen that some…

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RED BLOOD CELLS AND WHITE BLOOD CELLS (RBCs VS. WBCs)

Beside the Platelets, the two most important cellular components present in our Blood are the Red Blood Cells and the White Blood Cells. Often people get easily confused between both…

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SERUM AND PLASMA

The most confusing terms ever made in the Hematology might be the Serum and Plasma which are so frequently used in every assay we perform in the laboratory or whether…

Histopathology & Cytopathology

DEHYDRATION OF TISSUES – TECHNIQUE OF REMOVING WATER FROM THE TISSUES

INTRODUCTION TO DEHYDRATION OF TISSUES Dehydration of tissues is the important process because of the paraffin, in which the tissues are embedded, is not miscible with water and does not penetrate…

Microbiology Practicals

ENDOSPORE STAINING – PRINCIPLE, REQUIREMENTS, PROCEDURE & INTERPRETATION

INTRODUCTION TO ENDOSPORE STAINING Some bacteria are capable of changing into dormant structures that are metabolically inactive and do not grow or reproduce. Since these structures are formed inside the…