CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CMV) | VIROLOGY NOTES

CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CMV) – INFECTIONS, PATHOGENESIS, CLINICAL FEATURES, LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT & PROPHYLAXIS

INTRODUCTION TO CYTOMEGALOVIRUSES

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is formerly known as salivary gland virus, are a group of Herpes viruses, characterized by enlargement of infected cells and prominent Intranuclear inclusions.



INFECTIONS CAUSED BY CYTOMEGALOVIRUS

The source of the infection is usually by direct contact with body fluids, such s Saliva, Blood, Urine, Semen, Vaginal fluids, and Breastmilk.

Most healthy people do not experience any symptoms when infected with CMV, and it doesn’t pose a serious health concern.

In those children and adults who do have symptoms will recover from CMV infection without complications and do not require antiviral treatment.

In those with weakened immune system, CMV can cause serious disease (Retinitis Hepatitis, Colitis, Pneumonia, or Encephalitis).

CLINICAL FEATURES OF CMV INFECTION

The symptoms of Acute CMV infection include:-

  • Fever
  • Malaise
  • Enlarged lymph nodes
  • Sore throat
  • Muscle aches
  • Hepatomegaly
  • Splenomegaly
  • Fatigue

Hepatitis like signs includes – Appetite loss, Yellow eyes, Nausea & Diarrhea.

In Immuno-compromised individuals, CMV infection can attack different organs of the body & may cause blurred vision and blindness, Lung infection, Diarrhea, Hepatitis or Encephalitis.

Congenital CMV shows the symptoms of Deafness, Jaundice, Skin rash, Pneumonia, Spleenomegaly, Hepatomegaly, Microcephaly or Seizures.

PATHOGENICITY OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS

The virus may be transmitted from person to person in several ways – close contact with virus bearing material, blood transfusion, sexual contact etc.

The incubation period of CMV is 4-8 weeks.

LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS

⇒ Specimen: The virus can be isolated from Urine, Saliva, Breast Milk, Semen, Cervical secretions, Blood Leucocytes.

⇒ Isolation of Virus: Virus can be grown in Human amnion, Human Fibroblast, HeLa or Vero cell cultures.

⇒ Antigen detection: CMV antigen can be detected by blood leucocytes using monoclonal antibodies.

⇒ Polymerase Chain Reaction: PCR is the most widely used molecular method for detection of CMV DNA.

TREATMENT OF CMV INFECTION

Ganciclovir & Foscarnet have been found to be effective and are used for the treatment of CMV disease in patients with AIDS.

PROPHYLAXIS OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION

Screening of blood and organ donors and administration of CMV immunoglobulin have been employed in prevention.

Acyclovir is useful in prophylaxis but not in treatment.

No vaccine is available.



SAHIL BATRA

Hi, I'm the Founder and Developer of Paramedics World, a blog truly devoted to Paramedics. I am a Medical Lab Tech, a Web Developer and Bibliophiliac. My greatest hobby is to teach and motivate other peoples to do whatever they wanna do in life.

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