HEPATITIS D VIRUS (HDV) – MORPHOLOGY, TRANSMISSION, CLINICAL FEATURES & LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS

INTRODUCTION TO HEPATITIS D VIRUS (HDV)

HDV was identified in 1977 by Rizzetto & colleagues in the liver cell nucleus, as a new viral particle, of the patient infected by HBV and named as Hepatotropic virus Delta or Hepatitis D virus (HDV).

HDV is a defective virus as it depends on the helper function of HBV for its replication and expression.

HDV causes Type D Hepatitis & has no independent existence and can survive and replicate as long as HBV infection persists in the host.

MORPHOLOGY OF HEPATITIS D VIRUS (HDV)

HDV belongs to the Deltavirus genus.

HDV is a Spherical particle surrounded by HBsAg Envelope.

Size – 36 – 38 nm in diameter.

Genetic material – Circular ssRNA, encodes its own nucleoprotein, the delta antigen or HDAg.

Also Read: HEPATITIS VIRUSES

HEPATITIS VIRUSES

TRANSMISSION ROUTE OF HEPATITIS D VIRUS (HDV)

The transmission route of HDV is the same as for HBV:- Parenterally by Blood, Saliva, Breast Milk, Semen, Vaginal Secretions, Urine, Bile & Feces; Sexually & Congenitally.

CLINICAL FEATURES OF TYPE D HEPATITIS

The incubation period is long, about 1 – 6 months.

Co-infection: In this, the HDV & HBV are transmitted together at the same time. Co-infection clinically presents as acute hepatitis B, ranging from mild to fulminant disease.



Superinfection: In this, HDV infection occurs in a person already harboring HBV, which usually leads to more serious & chronic illness.

No association has been noted between HDV & Hepatocellular carcinoma.

LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF HEPATITIS D VIRUS (HDV)

Detection of IgM anti-delta Antibody in serum by ELISA or RIA.

HDAg is primarily expressed in liver cell nuclei where it can be detected by immunofluorescence.

PROPHYLAXIS OF HDV INFECTIONS

No specific prophylaxis is available.

Immunization with the hepatitis B Vaccine is effective because delta antigen cannot infect person immune to HBV.

Screening of blood donors for HBsAg will also limit the blood-borne HDV infection.



One thought on “HEPATITIS D VIRUS (HDV) – MORPHOLOGY, TRANSMISSION, CLINICAL FEATURES & LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS

  1. I was diagnosed as HEPATITIS B carrier after tests were done to investigate fatigue. I had chronic hepatitis b with fibrosis of the liver already present. I started Lamivudine (Epivir-HBV) treatment which reduced the viral load initially. After a couple of years the virus became resistant and i decided to try a more natural approach to treat the virus, so i started on HEPATITIS B Herbal formula treatment from RICH HERBS FOUNDATION, this natural HBV treatment totally reversed my condition. I did another blood test after the 4 months treatment and tested negative to the virus. Go to rich herbs foundation official web page http://www.richherbsfoundation.com. This treatment is a breakthrough for all HBV carriers.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.