Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) - Morphology, Transmission, Clinical features, Lab.

HEPATITIS D VIRUS (HDV) – MORPHOLOGY, TRANSMISSION, CLINICAL FEATURES & LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS

INTRODUCTION TO HEPATITIS D VIRUS (HDV)

HDV was identified in 1977 by Rizzetto & colleagues in the liver cell nucleus, as a new viral particle, of the patient infected by HBV and named as Hepatotropic virus Delta or Hepatitis D virus (HDV).

HDV is a defective virus as it depends on the helper function of HBV for its replication and expression.

HDV causes Type D Hepatitis & has no independent existence and can survive and replicate as long as HBV infection persists in the host.

MORPHOLOGY OF HEPATITIS D VIRUS (HDV)

HDV belongs to Deltavirus genus.

HDV is a Spherical particle surrounded by HBsAg Envelope.

Size – 36 – 38 nm in diameter.

Genetic material – Circular ssRNA, encodes its own nucleoprotein, the delta antigen or HDAg.

hepatitis d virus - hdv - morphology of hepatitis d virus - structure of hepatitis d virus - clinical features of hepatitis d virus - lab diagnosis of hepatitis d virus
Hepatitis D Virus particle surrounded by HBV Envelope showing HBsAg and HDAg

TRANSMISSION ROUTE OF HEPATITIS D VIRUS (HDV)

Transmission route of HDV is same as for HBV:- Parenterally by Blood, Saliva, Breast Milk, Semen, Vaginal Secretions, Urine, Bile & Feces; Sexually & Congenitally.

CLINICAL FEATURES OF TYPE D HEPATITIS

The incubation period is long, about 1 – 6 months.

Co-infection: In this, the HDV & HBV are transmitted together at the same time. Co-infection clinically presents as acute hepatitis B, ranging from mild to fulminant disease.



Superinfection: In this, HDV infection occurs in a person already harboring HBV, which usually leads to more serious & chronic illness.

No association has been noted between HDV & Hepatocellular carcinoma.

LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF HEPATITIS D VIRUS (HDV)

Detection of IgM anti-delta Antibody in serum by ELISA or RIA.

HDAg is primarily expressed in liver cell nuclei where it can be detected by immunofluorescence.

PROPHYLAXIS OF HEPATITIS D VIRUS (HDV) INFECTIONS

No specific prophylaxis is available.

Immunization with the hepatitis B Vaccine is effective because delta antigen cannot infect person immune to HBV.

Screening of blood donors for HBsAg will also limit the blood-borne HDV infection.



One thought on “HEPATITIS D VIRUS (HDV) – MORPHOLOGY, TRANSMISSION, CLINICAL FEATURES & LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS

  1. I was diagnosed as HEPATITIS B carrier after tests were done to investigate fatigue. I had chronic hepatitis b with fibrosis of the liver already present. I started Lamivudine (Epivir-HBV) treatment which reduced the viral load initially. After a couple of years the virus became resistant and i decided to try a more natural approach to treat the virus, so i started on HEPATITIS B Herbal formula treatment from RICH HERBS FOUNDATION, this natural HBV treatment totally reversed my condition. I did another blood test after the 4 months treatment and tested negative to the virus. Go to rich herbs foundation official web page http://www.richherbsfoundation.com. This treatment is a breakthrough for all HBV carriers.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *