Blood Collection By Venipuncture | Hematology Practicals

BLOOD COLLECTION BY VENIPUNCTURE – SYRINGE AND VACUTAINER METHOD

A Blood test is prescribed in most of the blood-related disorders, metabolic disorders and in various infections as well as for the Regular health Check-ups. Whenever a Large amount of blood is required for the tests, venipuncture is done to obtain the blood sample. Venipuncture can be done by two methods:

  1. Syringe method / Open Method
  2. Vacutainer method / Closed method




SYRINGE METHOD OF VENIPUNCTURE

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE BLOOD COLLECTION BY SYRINGE METHOD 

  • Needle
  • Syringe
  • Collection vials
  • Spirit / Alcohol Swab
  • Tourniquet
  • Cotton

Needle gauge – For Adults: 20-22 G & For Children: 23-24 G

Check out the blood collection by Capillary puncture

PROCEDURE OF THE BLOOD COLLECTION BY SYRINGE METHOD

Firstly ensure that the patient should be in the comfortable position.

Now decide the amount of blood required and select the appropriate vials or containers according to the tests to be done.

Now ensure the patient what is to be done.

Lay the arm of the patient on the table.

Apply the tourniquet and select the prominent vein of the patient from the antecubital fossa (The Basilic, The Cephalic or The Median Cubital Vein).

VENIPUNCTURE - SITES OF VENIPUNCTURE - ANTECUBITAL FOSSA - BASILIC VEIN - CEPHALIC VEIN - MEDIAN CUBITAL VEIN - BLOOD COLLECTION
PROMINENT VEINS OF ANTECUBITAL FOSSA

Now, Disinfect the selected site for puncture using the Alcohol swab.

Assemble needle and syringe, check that it is sharp, unblocked and moving smoothly by passing the air through the syringe. But there should not be any air present in the syringe at the time of blood collection.

With the left hand, hold the patient’s arm so that the skin over the vein gets tightened and more prominent. Ask the patient to make the fist.

Take the syringe in right hand, holding with the index finger against the base of the needle, keeping the bevel of the needle to the upper side and push firmly & steadily without any hesitation into the center of the vein.

The angle between the skin and the needle should not be more than 15°-30°. The moment needle enters the vein, blood flows back into the syringe.

VENIPUNCTURE - VENIPUNCTURE BY SYRINGE METHOD - SYRINGE BLOOD COLLECTION - BLOOD COLLECTION METHOD - COLLECTION OF BLOOD BY SYRINGE

With your left hand, slightly pull back the piston till the required amount of blood is obtained into the syringe.

Now, remove the Tourniquet, ask the patient to open the fist and place the cotton swab over the needle and wound. Withdraw the needle slowly, and tell the patient to place a cotton swab over the wound until the blood ceases.

Carefully Remove the needle from the syringe and gently expel the blood into the appropriate vial or container.

If anticoagulant is used, gently shake the vials for proper mixing of the blood with the anticoagulant.

VACUTAINER METHOD OF VENIPUNCTURE

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE BLOOD COLLECTION BY VACUTAINER METHOD 

  • Vacutainer Needle
  • Vacutainer Holder
  • Vacutainer vials/tubes
  • Spirit / Alcohol Swab
  • Tourniquet
  • Cotton

PROCEDURE OF BLOOD COLLECTION BY VACUTAINER METHOD 

Firstly ensure that the patient should be in the comfortable position.

Now Assemble the vacutainer holder & needle by inserting short end of the vacutainer needle which is covered with the rubber coating into the threaded end of the holder. Screw it tightly using a clockwise motion.

Now ensure the patients what is to be done.

Lay the arm of the patient on the table.

Apply the tourniquet and select the prominent vein of the patient from the antecubital fossa (The Basilic, The Cephalic or The Median Cubital Vein).

Now, Disinfect the selected site for puncture using the Alcohol swab.

With the right hand, Grasp the vacutainer unit (Vacutainer holder+needle) and remove the translucent plastic cover from the needle.

With the left hand, hold the patient’s arm so that the skin over the vein gets tightened and more prominent. Ask the patient to make the fist.

VENIPUNCTURE - VENIPUNCTURE BY VACUTAINER METHOD - VACUTAINER BLOOD COLECTION - BLOOD COLLECTION BY VACUTAINERS - VEINIPUNCTURE BLOOD COLLECTION METHOD

Place the needle bevel up in the line with the vein, decrease the angle of the needle until it is almost parallel to the skin surface direct the needle towards the vein and pierce the skin and vein wall at approximately at 15°-30° angle.

Hold the unit & needle steady with your left hand. If the unit and needle are not held steady while pushing in the tube, the needle may slip out of the vein or puncture the opposing vein wall.

Place the tips of the index and middle fingers of the right hand behind the flange of the vacutainer holder. Push the tube all the way into the holder with your thumb until the needle completely punctures the rubber stopper of the vacutainer tube.

If the needle is in the vein, the vacuum will draw the blood into the tube.

When the required amount of the blood obtained, carefully pull the tube downwards, off the tube end of the needle and out of the holder. If more than one specimen is needed, push another tube into the holder. Continue exchanging the tubes until the required no.  and amount of blood is obtained for analysis.

Now Instruct the patient to relax and unclench the fist and release the tourniquet after the required amount of blood is obtained as per the tests to be done and prepare to withdraw the needle.

Place the cotton swab over the needle and wound, Withdraw the needle smoothly & quickly and immediately apply firm manual pressure over the venipuncture site with the cotton swab, keeping the patient’s arm extended. This aid in the prevention of bruising and edema formation.

Instruct the patient to apply the pressure over the wound until the blood ceases.



SAHIL BATRA

Hi, I'm the Founder and Developer of Paramedics World, a blog truly devoted to Paramedics. I am a Medical Lab Tech, a Web Developer and Bibliophiliac. My greatest hobby is to teach and motivate other peoples to do whatever they wanna do in life.

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