“Prokaryote” is the term used to denote a group of unicellular organisms which lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound cell organelles.
Sometimes it is seen that some unicellular prokaryotes aggregate together and work as a Multicellular organism or to work more efficiently and called as Multicellular prokaryotes but usually the prokaryotes are Unicellular.
The term prokaryotes derived from the Greek word πρό (pro) meaning “before” and the κάρυον (karyon) meaning “nut or kernel”. Prokaryotes are mainly divided into Archaea and Bacteria.
Prokaryotic organisms reproduce without the fusion of gametes via budding or Binary fission etc. Moreover, the first living organisms on this planet are thought to have been prokaryotes.
In contrast, the organisms having a membrane-bound nucleus and cell organelles like mitochondria etc. are placed in Eukaryota.
Eukaryotic organism belongs to the domain Eukaryota or Eukarya (the 3 domain classification).
Their name comes from the Greek word εὖ (Eu) meaning “well” or “true” and the κάρυον (karyon) meaning “nut” or “kernel”.
The Eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles such as the Golgi apparatus, and in addition to this, some of the Plant cells and algae contain chloroplasts (where photosynthesis occurs).
Eukaryotes are usually multicellular organisms and include the organisms consisting of many cell types forming various kinds of tissue which performs different functions.
The most common example of Eukaryotes includes Humans, Animals, and Plants.
Below is the List of Top 40 Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes:
|1.)||Definition||Unicellular or Multicellular Organisms made up of cell(s) that lack membrane-bound nucleus or cell organelles like mitochondria & Golgi apparatus etc.||Multicellular Organisms made up of cells that have membrane-bound nucleus and various cell organelles like mitochondria, Golgi apparatus etc.|
|2.)||Origin||Around 3.5 billion years ago.||Around 2 billion years ago.|
|3.)||Major groups||Bacteria, Archae, and Blue-green algae||Algae, fungi, protozoa, plants, animals|
|4.)||Size||0.5-3.0 μm (Approximately)||>5 μm (Approximately)|
|5.)||Cell Type||Usually unicellular (some Cyanobacteria may be Multicellular)||Usually Multicellular|
|7.)||Nucleus Location||Free in the cytoplasm, attached to Mesosomes||Contained in membrane bound structure|
|10.)||Chromosome number||One||More than One|
|12.)||Genes||Expressed in groups called Operons.||Expressed individually|
|13.)||Genome||DNA haploid genome||DNA diploid genome|
|14.)||DNA wrapping on proteins||Multiple proteins act together to fold and condense prokaryotic DNA.|
Folded DNA is then organized into a variety of conformations that are super coiled and wound around tetramers of the HU protein.
|Eukaryotes wrap their DNA around proteins called histones.|
|15.)||Genome nature||Efficient and compact with little repetitive DNA.||With large amounts of non-coding repetitive DNA.|
|16.)||DNA base ratio (G+C %)||28-73||About 40|
|18.)||Ribosomes [sedimentation coefficient (S) ]||70S (50S + 30S). Smaller.||80S (60S + 40S). Larger.|
|19.)||Ribosome’s location||Free in cytoplasm or bound to cell membrane||Attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum|
|20.)||Generation time||Shorter||Comparatively longer|
Check out the Major Difference between Serum & Plasma
|26.)||Centrosome||Absent||Present except in flowering plants.|
|27.)||Microtubules||Absent or rare||Absent|
|29.)||Chloroplasts||Absent but chlorophyll scattered in the cytoplasm||Present (In Plants Only)|
|30.)||Fimbriae||Prokaryotes may have pili and fimbriae (appendage that can be found on many Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria).||Absent|
|31.)||Glycocalyx||Present||Only in some|
|34.)||Cell wall||Complex structure containing protein, lipids, and peptidoglycans||Present for plant cells and fungi; otherwise absent|
|35.)||Movement||Simple flagellum, if present||Complex flagellum, if present|
|36.)||Cytoplasmic membrane||Does not contain sterols (except Mycoplasma)||Contains sterols|
|37.)||Respiration||via Cytoplasmic Membrane||Via Mitochondria|
|38.)||Metabolic rate||Higher due to larger surface area to volume ratio||Comparatively slow|
|39.)||DNA replication||Occurs in cytoplasm.||Occurs in the nucleus.|
|40.)||Reproduction||Asexual (binary fission)||Sexual and Asexual/ Mitotic division|
That’s all about the 40 difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.