Top 30 Difference between Enzymes and Hormones | Paramedics World

Top 30 Difference between Enzymes and Hormones

Enzymes are macromolecules (Large Molecules) made from many difference amino acids.

The amino acids link together in a long chain, which is folded up into a complex structure and performs a particular task.

Basically, these are protein molecules in almost all the body cells which work as catalysts. Enzymes speed up the chemical reactions in the body but do not get used up in the process.

Almost all biochemical reactions in living things need enzymes. With an enzyme, chemical reactions go much faster than they would without the enzyme.

The substances or compounds at the start of the reaction are called as Substrates and the final substance obtained after the completion of the reaction is termed as Products.

Enzymes act as a catalyst in the reaction and speed up the conversion of substrates into the product.

Presently, there are thousands of enzymes are known which have their own functions but the first enzyme was found in 1833, by Anselme Payen.

Enzymes are named in a manner that indicates their function and usually, all the enzymes end in –ase to make them distinguishable and provide uniqueness in their names.

For example, Lactase enzyme which helps in the digestion of Lactose sugar. Other Examples includes DNase, DNA polymerase, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase etc.

The DNA polymerase reads an intact DNA strand and uses it as a template to make a new DNA strand.

Hormones are the chemical substances or messengers that are secreted directly into the bloodstream from the source of production.

It is travel throughout the body via the bloodstream and supplied to the organs and tissues of the body to exert their various functions.

Top 25 Difference Between Arteries and Veins

Top 25 Difference between Arteries and Veins

There are so many different types of hormones exist in humans that act on different aspects of body functions and processes. Some of the functions of hormones include:

  • Development and growth of the body
  • Metabolism of food items (Digestion, Absorption, Assimilation of Food you eat and Energy production)
  • Sexual function and reproductive growth and health
  • Cognitive function and mood (Various hormones influences mental stability)
  • Maintenance of body temperature (Works as Thermostat)
  • Thirst Hormones (whenever the fluid level decreases).

Hormones are secreted by Endocrine glands which are ductless glands, so hormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream rather than by way of ducts into the target organ.

Some of the major Endocrine glands in the body include:

  • Pituitary gland (Master Gland)
  • Pineal gland
  • Thymus
  • Thyroid
  • Adrenal glands
  • Pancreas (Dual Gland)
  • Testes (In Males)
  • Ovaries (In Females)

Below is the List of 30 Major difference between Enzymes and Hormones:

S. No.CharacteristicsEnzymesHormones
1.)DefinitionEnzymes are the biological macro molecules which speed up the rate of biochemical reactions without undergoing any change.Hormones are molecules, usually a peptide (for eg, insulin) or steroid (eg: estrogen) that is produced in one part of an organism and trigger specific cellular reactions in target tissues and organs some distance away.
2.)Also Known AsBiological catalystsChemical messengers
3.)Chemical compositionAll enzymes are generally proteins except ribozymes (RNA with catalytic activity).Hormones may be polypeptides, terpenoids, steroids, phenolics compounds or amines.
4.)Prosthetic groupEnzymes have vitamins and inorganic element as their prosthetic groups, without which, they do not act.No such prosthetic groups.
5.)Molecular weightThey are macro molecules with higher molecular weight.They have comparatively a low molecular weight.
6.)Site of actionMostly enzymes perform reactions at the place of origin i.e. in cells where they are produced.Hormones perform activity at some distance away from the site of origin.
7.)Carried throughThey either act intracellularly or carried by some ducts to another site.Generally carried by blood to a target organ.
8.)At the end of the reactionRemain unchanged.They participate in biological reaction and their chemical composition is changed.
9.)ReutilizationThey can be re-utilized.They cannot be re-utilized.
10.)SpecificityEnzymes are substrate specific i.e. depends on the substrate to perform the function.Hormones are target cell specific and depend on positive and negative feedback mechanism.

S. No.CharacteristicsEnzymesHormones
11.)FormationIn animals enzymes are synthesized and secreted by exocrine glands.Hormones are synthesized and secreted by endocrine glands.
12.)Producer cellsSalivary glands, Secretory cells in the stomach, pancreas and secretory glands in the small intestine.Glands such as Pituitary, Pineal, Thymus, Adrenal, Thyroid, Pancreas.
13.)TranslocationEnzymes are not translocate from one part to another part of cell.Most of the hormones show polar translocation.
14.)Reaction typeThey catalyze reversible reactions.Hormone controlled reactions are not reversible.
15.)Reaction timeThey act quickly.Some hormones are quick acting, while some are slow acting with a lag period.
16.)EffectIt increases the rate of metabolic physiological processes.They may be either excitatory or inhibitory in their action.
17.)Increase in concentrationReaction rate increases with increase in their concentration up to a limit.Deficiency or overproduction of hormone causes metabolic disorders or diseases.
18.)Primary functionThey act as catalysts to enhance rate of biochemical reactions.Signal passers from one cell to other or between organs.
19.)InterdependencyEnzymes are in work after getting message from hormones.They convey message and do not depend on enzyme for function.
20.)StimulationProduced as a result of stimulation.Act as a stimulating agent.

S. No.CharacteristicsArteriesVeins
21.)Pathway of blood flowVery distinctSometimes indistinguishable because of many interconnections
22.)Injury to the Blood Vessel Squirting bloodPooling of blood
23.)Contraction of musclePresentAbsent
24.)At the time of deathArteries empty up at the time of death.Veins get filled up at time of death.
25.)Associated DiseasesAtherosclerosis, Angina Pectoris, Myocardial Ischemia.Deep vein Thrombosis, Varicose Veins.

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