Enzymes are macromolecules (Large Molecules) made from many different amino acids.
The amino acids link together in a long chain, which is folded up into a complex structure and performs a particular task.
Basically, these are protein molecules in almost all the body cells which work as catalysts. Enzymes speed up the chemical reactions in the body but do not get used up in the process.
Almost all biochemical reactions in living things need enzymes. With an enzyme, chemical reactions go much faster than they would without the enzyme.
The substances or compounds at the start of the reaction are called as Substrates and the final substance obtained after the completion of the reaction is termed as Products.
Enzymes act as a catalyst in the reaction and speed up the conversion of substrates into the product.
Presently, there are thousands of enzymes are known which have their own functions but the first enzyme was found in 1833, by Anselme Payen.
Enzymes are named in a manner that indicates their function and usually, all the enzymes end in –ase to make them distinguishable and provide uniqueness in their names.
For example, Lactase enzyme which helps in the digestion of Lactose sugar. Other Examples include DNase, DNA polymerase, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase, etc.
The DNA polymerase reads an intact DNA strand and uses it as a template to make a new DNA strand.
Hormones are the chemical substances or messengers that are secreted directly into the bloodstream from the source of production.
It travels throughout the body via the bloodstream and supplied to the organs and tissues of the body to exert their various functions.
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There are so many different types of hormones exist in humans that act on different aspects of body functions and processes. Some of the functions of hormones include:
- Development and growth of the body
- Metabolism of food items (Digestion, Absorption, Assimilation of Food you eat and Energy production)
- Sexual function and reproductive growth and health
- Cognitive function and mood (Various hormones influences mental stability)
- Maintenance of body temperature (Works as Thermostat)
- Thirst Hormones (whenever the fluid level decreases).
Hormones are secreted by Endocrine glands which are ductless glands, so hormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream rather than by way of ducts into the target organ.
An endocrinologist is a medical practitioner specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders related to the endocrine glands.
Some of the major Endocrine glands in the body include:
- Pituitary gland (Master Gland)
- Pineal gland
- Adrenal glands
- Pancreas (Dual Gland)
- Testes (In Males)
- Ovaries (In Females)
Hormone specialist usually prescribes various tests based on the symptoms or to check the functioning of the above-mentioned organs as those hormones play a significant role in our health.
Below is the list of 30 Major difference between Enzymes and Hormones:
S. No. Characteristics Enzymes Hormones
1.) Definition Enzymes are the biological macro molecules which speed up the rate of biochemical reactions without undergoing any change. Hormones are molecules, usually a peptide (for eg, insulin) or steroid (eg: estrogen) that is produced in one part of an organism and trigger specific cellular reactions in target tissues and organs some distance away.
2.) Also Known As Biological catalysts Chemical messengers
3.) Chemical composition All enzymes are generally proteins except ribozymes (RNA with catalytic activity). Hormones may be polypeptides, terpenoids, steroids, phenolics compounds or amines.
4.) Prosthetic group Enzymes have vitamins and inorganic element as their prosthetic groups, without which, they do not act. No such prosthetic groups.
5.) Molecular weight They are macro molecules with higher molecular weight. They have comparatively a low molecular weight.
6.) Site of action Mostly enzymes perform reactions at the place of origin i.e. in cells where they are produced. Hormones perform activity at some distance away from the site of origin.
7.) Carried through They either act intracellularly or carried by some ducts to another site. Generally carried by blood to a target organ.
8.) At the end of the reaction Remain unchanged. They participate in biological reaction and their chemical composition is changed.
9.) Reutilization They can be re-utilized. They cannot be re-utilized.
10.) Specificity Enzymes are substrate specific i.e. depends on the substrate to perform the function. Hormones are target cell specific and depend on positive and negative feedback mechanism.
S. No. Characteristics Enzymes Hormones
11.) Formation In animals enzymes are synthesized and secreted by exocrine glands. Hormones are synthesized and secreted by endocrine glands.
12.) Producer cells Salivary glands, Secretory cells in the stomach, pancreas and secretory glands in the small intestine. Glands such as Pituitary, Pineal, Thymus, Adrenal, Thyroid, Pancreas.
13.) Translocation Enzymes are not translocate from one part to another part of cell. Most of the hormones show polar translocation.
14.) Reaction type They catalyze reversible reactions. Hormone controlled reactions are not reversible.
15.) Reaction time They act quickly. Some hormones are quick acting, while some are slow acting with a lag period.
16.) Effect It increases the rate of metabolic physiological processes. They may be either excitatory or inhibitory in their action.
17.) Increase in concentration Reaction rate increases with increase in their concentration up to a limit. Deficiency or overproduction of hormone causes metabolic disorders or diseases.
18.) Primary function They act as catalysts to enhance rate of biochemical reactions. Signal passers from one cell to other or between organs.
19.) Interdependency Enzymes are in work after getting message from hormones. They convey message and do not depend on enzyme for function.
20.) Stimulation Produced as a result of stimulation. Act as a stimulating agent.
S. No. Characteristics Enzymes Hormones
21.) Function dependent on Presence of substrate Their function depends on positive and negative feedback mechanism.
22.) Attack on Substrate Cell or tissues
23.) Catalyst Enzymes are biological catalyst. They catalyze the biological reactions. Hormones are not catalyst. They simply initiate biochemical reactions.
24.) Role in metabolism They are not used in metabolic functions rather take part in metabolism. They are used up in metabolic functions.
25.) Regulation They function under strict conditions of temperature and pH in body. They are not limited by temperature or pH but controlled by brain or external factors.
26.) Inhibited by Specific inhibitor molecules that control the enzyme reaction rate. Hormones are controlled by special inhibitor hormones.
27.) Contribution to life They have limited but essential functions. They have diverse functions to control body growth, reproduction and physiology.
28.) Variation with age They are same and do not change with age. They tend to change with age. As the age grows some hormones start to appear and at old age some hormones start to disappear like in menopause.
29.) Diseases Their diseases are less comparatively and mostly due to insufficiency. Hormones changes cause many disorders. It can be due to excess or even insufficiency
30.) Examples Hydrolases, oxidases, and isomerase Oxytocin, cortisol, testosterone, and estrogen in animals and abscisic acid, cytokines, and gibberellins in plants are the examples of hormones.
That’s All about Top Difference between Enzymes and Hormones
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