INTRODUCTION TO HEPATITIS E VIRUS (HEV)
⇒ Type E hepatitis is caused by the Hepatitis E Virus, responsible for the majority of the epidemic and sporadic hepatitis in adults.
⇒ It is also known as the NANB – ‘Nor A Nor B’ virus or E-NANB – the enterically transmitted NANB virus.
⇒ HEV infection often appears as epidemics, also known as Epidemic NANB.
MORPHOLOGY OF HEPATITIS E VIRUS (HEV)
⇒ HEV belongs to Hepeviridae
⇒ HEV is a Spherical, non-Enveloped virus.
⇒ Size: 32 – 34 nm in diameter.
⇒ Genetic material – ssRNA surrounded by an icosahedral capsid.
⇒ In morphology & physical characteristics, it resembles Calciviruses such as the Norwalk virus.
TRANSMISSION ROUTE OF HEPATITIS E VIRUS (HEV)
⇒ Ingestion of faecally contaminated drinking water.
⇒ It occurs predominantly in young to middle-aged adults.
⇒ Clinical the disease resembles that of Hepatitis A.
CLINICAL FEATURES OF TYPE E HEPATITIS
⇒ The incubation period ranges 2 – 9 weeks; average 6 weeks.
⇒ Most cases occur in the young to middle-aged adults (15 – 40 years).
⇒ The clinical severity & high case fatality rate of 20 – 40 % in pregnant women.
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF HEPATITIS E VIRUS (HEV)
⇒ Feces examination by electron microscopy for calicivirus-like particles.
⇒ Antibody detection by ELISA & Western Blotting Assay.
⇒ Detection of HEV RNA by PCR.
PROPHYLAXIS OF TYPE E HEPATITIS
⇒ Improved sanitation
⇒ Chlorinated water.