FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD AND BLOOD CELLS

FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD AND BLOOD CELLS

FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD

  • Blood acts as an oxygen carrier from lungs to the body tissues for metabolic activities.
  • It carries back CO2 and waste products to remove through excretory organs – Lungs, Kidney, and Skin.
  • Blood supplies nutrients to all parts of the body.
  • It transports the hormones from the endocrine glands to the target body tissues.
  • It carries vitamins to the body tissues.


  • Blood helps in the regulation of body temperature.
  • Blood helps in maintaining body fluid volume and its balance in the body.
  • It maintains the electrolyte balance in the body fluids.
  • Blood has a protective function through –
  • Leukocytes, or white blood cells – destroy invading microorganisms and cancer cells.
  • Antibodies and other proteins destroy pathogenic substances.
  • It carries various enzymes to the body tissues for various specific and vital functions in the body.
  • It contains thrombocytes which help in the control of loss of blood from the body through injuries.

FUNCTIONS OF RED BLOOD CELLS or ERYTHROCYTES

  • RBC’s provides gaseous exchange between tissues and environment as follows –
  • Red blood cells due to their hemoglobin content act as the oxygen carrier to all the body tissue.
  • Carries carbon dioxide from the body tissues to the lungs for excretion.
  • Hemoglobin acts as an important buffer and helps to maintain normal blood pH.
  • RBC’s helps to maintain ionic balance.
  • It maintains blood viscosity.
  • RBC’s maintains the osmotic relationship with plasma.

FUNCTIONS OF WHITE BLOOD CELLS or LEUKOCYTES

Neutrophils:

  • It forms the first line of defense against the pathogens.
  • They play roles in the destruction of bacteria and the release of chemicals that kills or inhibit the growth of bacteria – phagocytosis.

Eosinophils:

  • They attack the parasites that are too large to be engulfed by phagocytosis.
  • Eosinophilic granules release chemicals which are toxic to the larvae of parasites.
  • It collects at the side of allergic reaction and limits their intensity.

Basophils:

  • It Secrete histamine which increases tissue blood flow via dilating the blood vessels
  • It also secretes heparin which is an anticoagulant that promotes mobility of other blood cells by preventing clotting.



Lymphocytes:

  • Lymphocytes function in destroying cancer cells, cells infected by viruses, and foreign invading cells.
  • They also coordinate the actions of other immune cells, secrete antibodies and serve in immune memory.

Monocytes:

  • They form the second line of defense against any pathogen.
  • They function in differentiating into macrophages, which are large phagocytic cells, and digest pathogens, dead Neutrophils, and the debris of dead cells.

FUNCTIONS OF THROMBOCYTES or PLATELETS

  • Platelets Secrete vasoconstrictors – histamine and 5HT – which constrict blood vessels, causing vascular spasms in broken blood vessels.
  • It Forms temporary platelet plugs to stop bleeding.
  • Thrombocytes dissolve the blood clots when they are no longer needed
  • It Secrete chemicals that attract Neutrophils and monocytes to sites of inflammation
  • Platelets Secrete growth factors and have adhesive property by which it maintains the linings of blood vessels



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